Technical inquiries Report 2022 week 43

Review period: 24/10/2022 to 28/10/2022


  • Mycotoxin diagnosis result

Mycotoxins are metabolites of fungi mycotoxin producers. These fungi grow where crops and cereals are cultivated and stored. This is the way they contaminate the raw materials which are going to be use for feed formulation. Temperatures above 25 ºC and humidity between 70 and 100% lead to fungi proliferation. Fungi feed off the cereals nutrients which decrease the nutritional quality of the cereals. When they reach some development stage, they start to segregate the mycotoxins. These mycotoxins are a self-defence of the fungi against other microorganisms, such as, bacteria.

Mycotoxins are clustered into 5 chemical groups according to their main chemical structure. Aflatoxin, Fumonisin, Ochratoxin, Zearalenone and Trichothecenes are the most important due to the lesions they can cause in the animal health. This depends on the type and concentration of the mycotoxin, and on the animal species affected. Usually, in the feed 2 or more mycotoxins are present at the same time. This causes a synergistic effect of mycotoxins which worsen the lesions.

Mycotoxins not only affect birds’ health, but they decrease productivity parameters, even though they don´t show clinical signs. The daily weight gain and egg production are some of the affected productivity parameters.

Mycotoxins can be controlled by a frequent diagnosis analysis performed in the feed that is ready to be consume. A sample of the batch is enough for knowing the mycotoxin type and concentration level in the feed. The analysis is easy and fast to carry out. Once the concentration result is obtained, expressed in ppm or ppb, the mycotoxin binder doses can be calculated to add to the feed.

Alquerfeed Antitox is a natural mycotoxin binder. Silicogycidol is the main compound. It was developed and patented by Biovet S.A. It has a modified structure that fix the mycotoxins and transport them through the intestinal system without causing lesions. The Alquerfeed Antitox -mycotoxins complex is eliminated by feces. Its board spectrum and effective at low doses: 0,5kg/tn. It doesn´t interfere with nutrition adsorption. The gastrointestinal system different pH doesn´t affect the Alquerfeed Antitox effect. Furthermore, it doesn´t required withdrawal period. 

  • Coccidia and necrotic enteritis: necropsy findings in broilers farm. Southeast Asia.

In a 20-day old broiler farm, low weight gain and mortality peaks were detected. In the intestine, lesions compatible with Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima were found. Also, some necrotic foci were present which indicate Clostridium perfringens presence. Coccidiosis is a parasite disease that damage bird’s intestine. Coccidia are ingested through contaminated feed and by peaking material with contaminated feces. They have a complex lifecycle which allows an easy contamination and a difficult elimination. Other pathogens live In the intestine. These are controlled by the natural immune defence system. But when coccidia appear and damage the intestinal epithelium, also, allow the other pathogens to aggravate the clinical signs. This usually happens with Clostridium perfringens responsible for the Necrotic Enteritis. The common signs are: diarrhea with blood, low feed intake, low weight gain and mortality. All this decrease the farm productivity and profits.

Alquernat Inmuplus is an immunoestimulant, that increase the macrophages activity, the neutrophils action and stimulate the antibody segregation. It is recommended to be use since the very beginning of the cycle production to strengthens specific and non-specific immunity against coccidia.

Alquernat Inmuplus is a natural product developed by Biovet S.A. It can be administrated by feed or drinking water. Increase the vaccine efficiency. It can be used throughout the cycle as it leaves no residue and does not require a period of suppression.


  • African Swine Fever (ASF) in wild boars. Europe

The ASF is cause by an Asfivirus. The clinical signs are fever, loss of appetite, apathy, weakness, conjunctivitis, constipation followed by diarrhea, ataxy, and purple discoloration of the ears, of the abdomen, and of the inner part of extremities. After 1 or 2 weeks of getting infected animal has 100% mortality. In Africa is endemic, but in Europe and Asia outbreaks occur. The transmission it can be through direct contact or through contaminated material or vectors such as ticks of the genus Orintodorus.

Wild boars are susceptible to disease. They have special attention because wild populations are reservoir and spread the virus to pig farms. Wild boars are nomads and travel long distance. They transmit the disease by direct contact or when they die, other wild boars feed on them. Also, they may contaminate the drinking water.

There is no treatment or vaccines to apply. To control the disease, it is important to eliminate the herd infected with the virus. This implies a very high economic impact for pigs’ farms. The implementation of barriers for the wild boar movement can help to prevent the spread of the disease from Eastern Europe to other countries such as France and Spain.


  • Tilapia production. Southamerica

Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador are countries where tilapia production has been expanding and technifying year after year. Tilapia is a freshwater fish very flexible to adapt to salinized waters. It can reach a commercial weight in little time, stands up to high fish density, admit a variety of feed formulations and its meat is exported to countries like USA, Israel, and many countries in Europe.

Tilapia culture is highly adaptable to many facilities: earthen ponds, tanks, pools, and cages. The variety of tilapia species makes it possible to adapt to salinized waters. This allows the use of the coasts, which are usually areas with little productivity due to flooding and low nutrients availability. Acclimatization to the place of culture, salinity and temperature are factors that challenge tilapia production. Tilapia has low tolerance to cold, so, the area for its culture must contemplate winter temperatures not less than 15 ºC. This will depend on each tilapia species, since they have different comfort temperature ranges.

The feed will depend on the area where the culture is located. The use of catfish and carp feed had positive results. But implementing a feed formulated for the nutritional requirements of tilapia can boost productivity. Reaching weights of up to 500 gr, is economically profitable. Soybean meal has been used as a substitute for fishmeal with good results and lower costs. A feeding of 2 times a day is recommended.


• Use of insects in animal feed.

Lately, insect farming production has been increasing. The use black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, in poultry, pigs and fish feed has already been implemented. It has many advantages, such as, 45% of protein and 35% of fat. It doesn´t require large installations and insects are fed with former foodstuff. It has a lower environmental impact, which generates great expectations to reduce the carbon footprint left by cereal and forage crops. In the USA, trials have been carried out incorporating the larvae into cattle feed and good results have been obtained. The biggest challenge is the big volume needed and the sales price of the larvae, since it is not yet a mass production and its price has not been amortized. The regulations regarding its implementation in animal feed are constantly updated and legislated, so it is promising that the use of larvae in cattle feed will soon be enabled.


  • “Nutricion y bajo costo, manejo Alimentario para Tilapia” Ram C Bhujel, PhD