Technical inquiries Report 2022 week 47

Review period: 21/11/2022 to 25/11/2022


  • Causes of necrotic lesions on beak and tongue

The consumption of contaminated feed by mycotoxins is one of the causes of beak and tongue lesions that end up necrotic.

Another cause is formaldehyde that is used in food as a preservative.

An excess of copper in the diet can also cause this type of injury.

  • Biotin deficiency lesions

Biotin is a Group B vitamin, which is involved in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins.

Part of the biotin required by birds is obtained from feed, but a considerable amount is synthesized by intestinal bacteria and absorbed via the intestine.

The main symptoms of deficiency are lesions on the beaks and skin (mainly in the plantar region), fatty degeneration of the kidneys and liver, tibio-tarsal malformations, and muscular incoordination. As well as lesions in the intestinal mucosa with a decrease in villi and their quality.

Given its participation in energy and protein metabolism, the growth of birds is reduced, and poorly feathered birds are observed. In breeders, hatchability decreases, and fertility problems occur, with embryos appearing with bone deformity, muscular incoordination and a characteristic parrot beak.


  • Atrophic rhinitis vaccination plan with different types of vaccines

Atrophic rhinitis (AR) is an infectious disease that affects the upper part of the porcine respiratory system, causing atrophy of the turbinates, deviation of the nasal septum and deformity of the nasal bones. It is a highly prevalent and costly respiratory disease of swine. The severe and progressive AR is the result of concurrent infection with B. bronchiseptica and P. multocida toxigénica.

Vaccination plan:

Sows => For the passive protection of piglets through colostrum

  • Basic vaccination: administer two injections with an interval of 3-4 weeks to adult sows and gilts that have not been previously vaccinated with the drug. The first injection should be given 6 to 8 weeks before the expected date of delivery.
  • Revaccination: administer a single injection 3-4 weeks before each subsequent delivery.

Types of Vaccines:

  1. Bordetella bronchisepticainactivated + Pasteurella multocida type D inactivated + Dermonecrotoxine of Pasteurella multocida type D inactivated + oily adjuvant.
  2. Bordetella bronchiseptica inactivated + recombinant toxin Pasteurella multocida Type D.
  3. Inactivated cultures of Bordetella bronchiseptica + Pasteurella multocida toxigenic type D, added with adjuvant to intensify the immune response.


  • Camelid digestive pathologies

Camelids are ruminant herbivores with a three-compartment stomach.

Most infectious diseases are associated with early age (offspring) and they are particularly expressed in the digestive tract with the presence of diarrhoea.

Enterotoxemia => Caused by Clostridium perfringens

Colibacillosis (atypical diarrhea) => Caused by Escherichia coli, it mainly affects new born offspring, causes whitish or yellowish diarrhea and can lead to death within 5 to 45 days.

Verminous gastroenteritis => Disease produced by roundworms (nematodes), characterized by hindering the digestive process and nutrient absorption.

Distomatosis o fasciolasis => caused by Fasciola hepatica, a parasite that lives in the bile ducts of camelids and humans.

Coccidiosis =>produced by protozoan species of the genus Eimeria.


  • Influence of the niñ@ ‘s phenomenon in pathology cycles in shrimp farms on the Pacific coast of North-Central-South America.

The El Niño, La Niña-Southern Oscillation cycle is a global climate phenomenon, which has two extremes: a warm phase known as El Niño and a cold phase known as La Niña.

It is a natural and recurring process, whose periods of occurrence have fluctuated in the last half century, between 3 and 7 years.

The typical climatic conditions of the El Niño phenomenon characterized by high temperatures and salinities, can cause an increase in pathologies such as necrotizing hepatopancreatitis. While the characteristic low temperatures of La Niña favor outbreaks of the WSSV virus (white spot disease).


  • file:///C:/Users/rconde/Downloads/Sanidad_animal_camelidos_domesticos.pdf
  • file:///C:/Users/rconde/Downloads/Dialnet-PrincipalesPatogenosViralesDeCamaronEnAmericaYSuRe-7860765.pdf