Technical inquiries Report 2022 week 50

Review period: 12/12/2022 to 16/12/2022


  • What Pigments give color to the eggshell?

The main pigments that give color to the eggshell are protoporphyrin-IX (PP IX), biliverdin-IX and its zinc chelate.

Biliverdin => green pigment, a by-product of hemoglobin catabolism that will occasionally show a blue or green color in the eggshell.

Protoporphyrin IX => heme immediate precursor porphyrin, which gives eggshells a reddish or brown color.

The color of the eggshell varies with different shades of brown, ranging from dark brown to light brown, depending on the amount of this pigment.

Porphyrins form complexes with metal ions such as iron, magnesium and calcium, so it is possible that the ingestion of these types of metals may influence the color of the shell.

  • Why do Liver Toxics discolor the eggshell?

The liver is a multifunctional organ, which participates in metabolism, detoxification, bile secretion, coagulation, immunity, among other functions.

It has a key role in the synthesis of nutrients from the egg yolk, as well as in the formation of the shell, and in its color since porphyrins, pigments that give color to the eggshell, are synthesized in the liver.

Toxins, such as nicarbazin or mycotoxins, damage the liver and affect the normal production of porphyrins. As a result, the eggshell appears with different color intensities and unevenly pigmented spots. These alterations occur suddenly with special frequency in hot seasons.


  • When performing a necropsy on a newborn piglet. What are the name of the three ducts coming from the umbilicus, one cranially and two caudally?

The umbilical cord of piglets has three large blood vessels: a large vein and two smaller and similar diameter arteries.

So, the “ducts” that come out of the umbilicus, would be remnants of the umbilical vein and umbilical arteries.


  • Techniques for early diagnosis in bovine mastitis

 Mastitis is an inflammatory reaction of the mammary gland. This inflammation produces changes in the glandular tissue and a series of variations in the biochemical composition of the milk.

The main methods for diagnosing bovine mastitis are:

  1. Observation and palpation of the udder
  2. Examine the lacteal secretion
  3. Measure the concentration of somatic cells in milk, by different methods:
    1. California Test
    2. Whiteside Test
    3. Catalasa Test
    4. Direct somatic cell count


  • Importance of capture’s capacity and the % of release in mycotoxin binders.

The capture or adsorption capacity of a binder measures the percentage of mycotoxins that bind to it. The higher this capacity is, the less amount of mycotoxins will reach the target organs of the animal and it will also allow the use of a lower dose of sequestrant.

But the high uptake capacity must be linked to a low % release or desorption, to ensure that the mycotoxins are excreted via faeces, and not released along the digestive tract.

For a mycotoxin binder to be truly effective it must have high adsorption and low desorptionAlquerfeed Antitox meets these two requirements.

  • Why are mycotoxins released at alkaline pH more dangerous than those released at acidic pH?

In general, mycotoxins adsorb better under acidic conditions than under neutral or basic conditions. The gastrointestinal tract pH of production animals changes rapidly from very acidic in the stomach to approximately pH 6-7 in the small intestine, ending with basic pH in the colon and rectum.

If mycotoxin is released at alkaline pH, it will be released in the colon, hardly rebind with the binder and will be absorbed, passing into the bloodstream, both the general systemic circulation and the portal-hepatic system.


  • Borrell, J. 2014. Evaluación de captadores e inactivadores de micotoxinas. Ann. R. Acad. CC. Vet. Es. 22: 215-249, 2014.